Ocean Based - Air Temperature Buffer - The 85 Year Lag
Take a look at bullet #21 in this marker piece debunking C02 warming by showing Earth responds to the Sun. ie. "the climate we experience today was initiated by changes in the Sun cycle 85 years ago. The delay in expressing those changes as a "warming or cooling" of our climate is due to a buffering effect by the world's massive oceans that just plain don't warm up or cool down as quickly as the Sun's changes that initiate them." This lag means that we must "look back" at the Sun's condition by 85 years to explain today's major conditions or "leap forward" 85 years to predict climate in our future.
This does not mean the weather does not change within these timelines. Weather is presented by a "sawtooth" oscillation of warming and cooling within 11, 30 and 350 year cycles. Major changes in state are better predicted by viewing the 85 year status and projecting forward.
Here's an article published by Electroverse showing massive sea level rises and falls over the past 2000 years, attributable to Sun Cycles. I've copied the last paragraph -
Within C14-dating error, Fairbridge's Holocene high stands correlate with
(1) global-warmth peaks (from proxies, e.g. tree-ring widths, ice-core oxygen isotopes) and
(2) solar Grand Maxima (cosmogenic isotopes in tree rings and ice cores).
The Europe Dark Age's Transgression coincided with strong warming ~350-450AD, possibly the warmest of the last 2,000yr (PAGES2k 2013, 2017), quite likely warmer than now (like earlier Holocene peaks; Marcott et al. 2013); and occurred <100yr after a solar Grand Maximum spanning 275-345AD.
These correlations support Svensmark's theory of increasing solar-magnetic output reducing cloudiness (cosmic-ray link), causing increased solar warming of the ocean (in turn warming the atmosphere). The ~100yr time-lag is currently ~80yr, based on my visual cross-correlation of post-1700AD measured global temperature (HadCRUT) and solar magnetic output, while SL (from tide gauges) is seen to lag 20yr behind temperature.
I attribute the 80yr lag to oceanic thermal inertia (slow mixing), and the 20yr lag to ocean 'conveyor belt' circulation (AMOC). In this model, Fairbridge-type rapid SL-rise events (2-5m within 200yr) are each due to a solar Grand Maximum 'over-warming' the Atlantic surface water, which then downwells in the North Atlantic and eventually upwells at Antarctica, provoking glacier-snout collapse, hence sudden SL rise (google MISI and MICI).
Another solar Grand Maximum (1937-2004) has just ended, the strongest in >2,000yr, stronger than the 275-345 one, so another metre-scale SL rise is predictable by 2100. Each Fairbridge-type rise was followed by an equally rapid 2-5m SL fall, evidently intrinsic, e.g. more snowfall, hence ice buildup, due to higher humidity caused by transgressive flooding of high-latitude coastal plains? (cf. Neumann & Hearty, 1996).