It's So Simple - Heat vs. Density = GMAT.
"Global Mean Annual Near-Surface Equilibrium Temperature"
Or - another way to estimate a single temperature to describe a horrendously complex Planet. Presently accepted GMAT by IPCC as 15C on the basis of heat retention by carbon dioxide, the Nikolev and Zeller method falls back on simple physical laws and finds that only two variables predict this value accurately with extremely high regression coefficients demonstrated in the study.
These two variables are 1.) Sun irradiance falling on the outer skin of any Planet's atmosphere, and 2.) the density of that atmosphere (at surface presumably).
Type of atmospheric gases and especially presence of carbon dioxide has no relationship to temperature whatsoever. All component gases act as one gas (collectively known as "air" on Earth).
Nikolev and Zeller - have shown how the Earth's default temperature is created. And it's simple physics, not some elaborate, impossible, complex, naive, manipulative, insulting theory as that proposed by ignorant politicians who wish to twist pseudoscience to their demands for power.
Here are the major players:
1. The Sun - direct straight line delivery of radiant energy at the latitude of the equator equal to 1360 watts / m^2. This is the energy delivered to the outer level of the atmosphere before beginning its penetration of the air blanket on its way down to the Earth's surface.
2. The Earth - T (no atmosphere) - The temperature an atmosphere-less Earth would attain after receipt of direct radiant heat (1360 watts / m^2) spread over the sphere that Earth actually is equal to 340 watts / m^2.
3. The Earth - T (atmosphere) - The temperature the Earth achieves after a filtering and reflecting process sends 100 watts / m^2 of incoming energy back into outer space through it's albedo effect. Net energy reaching the Earth then becomes 240 watts / m^2.
4. Atmospheric Density - The concentration of air molecules at any given point in the Earth's atmosphere. Important concepts are the adiabatic warming of the air as the height decreases from outer space levels down to the Earth's surface. Adiabatic warming occurs as molecules are forced together, increasing the number of collisions and raising the kinetic energy of the mass as well. (temperature is number that designates the relative number of collisions with higher numbers indicating more collisions ie. higher kinetic energy).
5. The Blend of gases - Earth has a wide range of different gases (including C02 at .04%) making up its composition. Are any one of them more important as heat trapping agents than others or do they all act as one mass of molecules?
6. Other Planets - by comparing our Earth to other Planets we gain perspective and challenge our beliefs on what is happening to keep our own planet at our "normal" temperatures.
DATA USED BY NIKOLEV AND ZELLER IN THEIR DETERMINATION OF GMAT.
EXACTLY HOW DOES THAT 1360 W / M^2 GET ABSORBED BY OUR ATMOSPHERE?
Earth's Atmospheric Shield
Electromagnetic radiation bombards Earth from all directions in the universe, the bulk of it from our own Sun. Only certain wavelengths of radiation get through to the surface because Earth's atmosphere reflects, absorbs, or scatters the rest. Oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the thermosphere absorb nearly all x-rays and gamma rays, the most energetic forms of light; the mesosphere and stratosphere screen the remainder. A significant portion of ultraviolet light entering the mesosphere and stratosphere is absorbed by ozone molecules, protecting us from lethal doses. At 10 miles, radiation of longer wavelengths--from visible through radio--enters the troposphere, where water vapor, trace gases, carbon dioxide, dust particles, and pollutants absorb the infrared. Long-wavelength radio waves slide right past these small particles, however, making the radio window one of the most transparent for astronomical observation.
IT'S INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT THE ROLE OF OXYGEN AND NITROGEN IS NEGATED IN GREENHOUSE THEORY AS THEY ARE SAID TO "NOT ABSORB ANY IR RADIATION". THIS IS PROBABLY TRUE AS IT APPEARS THEIR ABILITY TO ABSORB ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY IS WAY UP THE ENERGY SCALE, IN THE GAMMA AND X RAY REGIONS. LONG WAVE IR IS NEGLIGIBLE TO A MOLECULE THAT REQUIRES THAT KIND OF ENERGY TO CAUSE ANY SHIFTS IN ENERGY STATE. MAKES SENSE.
IS THERE ENOUGH AIR WAY UP THERE TO DO THE JOB?